In mathematical history, Isaac Newton is generally credited for developing calculus. But what if calculus's true origins lie in medieval India rather than Europe?

Recent study has revealed the incredible achievements of **Madhava Acharya**, a medieval Indian scholar whose work predates and exceeds that of European intellectuals.

Madhava, born in 1340 in the town of modern-day Kerala, is credited with establishing the Kerala School of Astronomy and Mathematics. His pioneering achievements prepared the groundwork for the development of calculus centuries before it was introduced in Europe. This blog dives into his biography, his groundbreaking contributions to mathematics and astronomy, and the remarkable connections he made with Newton's theories.

**Historical Background**

**Early Life and Influence: **

Madhava's family roots are in Sangamagrama, a small village in India near Kerala that is known for its mathematical history. Being born in Kerala during an intellectual rebirth probably had an effect on him. There were more and more scholars in the area. His life isn't well known, but he seems to have been at his best between 1340 and 1425, when Kerala's intellectual exchange with other societies was at its peak. Madhava's creativity grew in this mentally stimulating setting, which led to his important contributions to astronomy and mathematics.

Madhava's mathematical genius manifested itself in a variety of ways. He made significant contributions to trigonometry by developing series expansions of sine, cosine, and other trigonometric functions. His work with infinite series, particularly his discovery of power series, laid the groundwork for later developments in calculus.

**The Link to Calculus**

The most important thing **Madhava Acharya** did was work on what we now call calculus. He and his students came up with ideas that were ahead of their time in terms of differential and integral calculus. A "derivative" is the rate of change of a function, and they came up with ways to figure it out for different functions. In the same way, they looked at the idea of "integration," which means "sum of infinitesimal elements," and used it to solve problems involving volumes and areas.

**Taking apart the Kerala School Manuscript **

The strange "Kerala School Mathematics Manuscript," which is a collection of old mathematical treatises, keeps a lot of Madhava's mathematical work alive. Some experts think it came about 150 to 200 years before the works of Newton and Leibniz, who were the first people in Europe to use calculus. However, the exact date of its creation is unknown.

**The Kerala School of Math and Astronomy **

**Madhava Acharya**'s new idea comes from the Kerala School, which was a major academic group in the 1400s and 1600s. The smart people in this club were known for their important contributions to astronomy, trigonometry, and calculus, which led to the mathematical awakening. With Madhava as their leader, their careful research and creative ideas predicted changes in European mathematics, showing an amazing parallel development of mathematical thought.

No one knows what Madhava's work on the history of calculus in Europe means. Although there is no proof of direct transmission, experts think that ancient trade lines or interactions between mathematicians from different cultures may have had an indirect effect.

No matter what the argument is, Madhava's maths skills stand out. He made a big difference in the history of calculus and showed how India developed its own difficult mathematical ideas. Mathematicians are inspired by him, and his work brings up questions about how calculus came to be.

**Contributions to Mathematics **

One of **Madhava Acharya**'s most significant contributions was his work on infinite series. He created the infinite series for trigonometric functions like as sine, cosine, and arctangent, which were crucial to the development of calculus. These series are now known as the Madhava Series.

For instance, the Madhava-Leibniz series for π (pi) is expressed as: [pi = 4 left(1 - frac{1}{3} + frac{1}{5} - frac{1}{7} + dots ight)]

Madhava's series, which was later found by James Gregory and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, illustrates his thorough comprehension of the limit concepts required for calculus.

**Contributions to Astronomy **

**Madhava Acharya's** contributions to astronomy are equally significant as his mathematical achievements. He employed his mathematical methods to address astronomical concerns, as is customary in Indian academia.

**Parallels with Newton **

The most obvious parallel between **Madhava Achaya** and Newton is in the creation of calculus. While Newton and Leibniz are credited with formalizing calculus in the late 17th century, Madhava's work on infinite series and methods for calculating derivatives and integrals shows that the fundamental principles of calculus were understood and applied in India centuries before.

Madhava's series expansions for trigonometric functions and π demonstrate a strong understanding of calculus' core concepts. These series expansions were essential for astronomical computations and helped pave the path for more advanced mathematical studies.

**Call for Further Research**

Madhava's narrative underscores the importance of researching the history of mathematics beyond the traditional Western-centric viewpoint. Further investigation into the Kerala School of Mathematics, as well as potential links between mathematical accomplishments in India and Europe, has the potential to significantly improve our understanding of this intriguing intellectual pursuit.

**Conclusion**

**Madhava Acharya** of Sangamagrama shows how academically vibrant India was in the Middle Ages. His contributions, especially his ideas on calculus hundreds of years before it became a formal topic in Europe, highlight the global web of mathematical discoveries. As we study Madhava's legacy and the **Kerala School of Mathematics**, we better grasp the multiple paths that lead to one of the most powerful mathematical tools for humans.

One of the greatest scientists and mathematicians was **Madhava Acharya**. Many of Newton's advances in calculus, infinite series, and astronomy computation were predicted by his work. Madhava and the Kerala School of Astronomy and Mathematics demonstrate the rich history of mathematics. This emphasizes the need of global recognition.

While we honor Newton and other European scientists, we should also commemorate Madhava Acharya, who lay the groundwork for many current science and math principles. His narrative shows how all information is connected and how we use numbers to comprehend the world.

Jul 10, 2024

TUI Staff

Jul 09, 2024

TUI Staff